I built a small
PyBitesTips class to consume our Python tips from the command line. The code (project) is here
Speaking of tips, here are some cool things I learned / re-used:
- Make a class callable using the
__call__ dunder (magic) method.
namedtuples and instantiate them with ** keyword args:
[Tip(**tip) for tip in resp.json()]
- Use paging of results with
- Break down output creation and printing in different methods (and helpers) which made testing the code easier.
I put the tests in a separate
tests/ subdirectory. This way it's easier to omit them from the package build (see further down).
I also mocked out
requests.get, providing a static
tips_payload list, and
builtins.input to simulate a user searching for various tips.
As mentioned before the abstraction of an individual tip output using
_generate_tip_output made it easy to write
Another thing worth mentioning is the
conftest.py I added to the main package folder
pytip which has
pytest added to
sys.path. With that change I could just run
pytest in the top project folder (more info).
This file is your key to making your project pip installable. As per the official documentation, a basic
setuptools.setup will do the trick. A few things to highlight as well as extra features I used for my setup.py:
classifiersyou set the Python versions you support, here I use Python 3.x
packagesyou specify which directories to bundle up, here it's just
pytip. Note that I called it
src. I discovered that is how it ends up in your virtual environment's
install_requiresyou specify any 3rd party dependencies, in this case
requests. Note that this makes
python setup.py installwill now pull it in automatically.
console_scriptsmakes an alias
pytipthat points to
pytipdirectory (package) >
mainfunction which has some
argparselogic to make this a CLI app (read much more about this in Erik's Exploring the Modern Python Command-Line Interface). So when you pip install this package, you can just run
pytip, how cool is that, no?!
This is 80% of the battle. Uploading it to PyPI is actually very easy.
I highly recommend making this file so you can authenticate to both servers without entering a password ever again:
$ cat ~/.pypirc [distutils] index-servers = pypi testpypi [pypi] username: __token__ password: ... [testpypi] repository: https://test.pypi.org/legacy/ username: __token__ password: ...
Create your distribution:
python setup.py sdist bdist_wheel. This will put a
tar.gz and a
.whl (wheel) in a
dist/ folder (which you should add to
Always first upload your package to the Test PyPI to make sure it all works:
twine upload --repository testpypi dist/*. This is important because version numbers can only be uploaded once, so it better work before uploading it to the real PyPI.
pip install the package from the test index to see if you are happy with the results (here I found out about the "pytip vs src directory name" thing by looking at what got installed in
site-packages. And here I tested out if my
pytip alias, as defined in
console_scripts, actually worked.
If all good, upload it to the real PyPI server:
twine upload dist/* (no need to specify
repository as PyPI is the default).
And that's it, a new open source project on PyPI.
These resources really helped me going through this process end-to-end:
Setup.py is still the way to go in many cases, but Poetry and the standardized
toml file is a strong contender.
Check it out for yourself:
Keep Calm and Code in Python!
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